First, Plato Republic, Book VI argued that some people are more intelligent and more moral than others and that those persons ought to rule.
First, it is generally thought that majority rule is required for treating persons as equals in collective decision making. Such a principle implies a kind of principle of restraint which requires that reasonable persons not propose laws and policies on the basis of controversial principles for the regulation of society.
Worse still, Anthony Downs has arguedchap. Epistemologically, democracy is thought to be the best decision-making method on the grounds that it is generally more reliable in helping participants discover the right decisions.
To be sure, it is conceivable for all that has been said that there can be an elite deliberative democracy wherein elites deliberate, perhaps even out of sight of the population at large, on how to run the society.
Indeed, some deliberative democrats do emphasize deliberation in legislative assemblies though in general deliberative democrats favor a more broadly egalitarian approach to deliberation, which is vulnerable to the kinds of worries raised by Schumpeter and Downs.
John Stuart Mill argued that a democratic method of making legislation is better than non-democratic methods in three ways: After the Glorious Revolution ofthe Bill of Rights was enacted in which codified certain rights and liberties, and is still in effect. He enlarged federal power through the intrusively-enforced Embargo Act of However Sheehan argues that the Jeffersonians, with the best of goodwill toward the Indians, destroyed their distinctive cultures with its misguided benevolence.
On the assumption that citizens reason and behave roughly according to the Downsian model, either the society must in fact be run by a relatively small group of people with minimal input from the rest or it will be very poorly run.
Political leaders are to avoid divisive and emotionally charged issues and make policy and law with little regard for the fickle and diffuse demands made by ordinary citizens. In the early days of the French revolution, the members of the third estate agreed to stick together in the face of opposition from the king and nobles.
Moreover, it is hard to see how this approach avoids the need for a complete consensus, which is highly unlikely to occur in any even moderately diverse society.
But order and freedom must be balanced. The idea is that a society ought to be structured to advance equally the interests of the members of the society. Hence, in democratic societies individuals are encouraged to be more autonomous.
One difficulty is that this view relies on agreement much as the liberty views described above. Hence, only some interest groups will succeed in influencing government and they will do so largely for the benefit of the powerful economic elites that fund and guide them.
Democratically governed nations are more likely to secure the peace, deter aggression, expand open markets, promote economic development, protect American citizens, combat international terrorism and crime, uphold human and worker rights, avoid humanitarian crises and refugee flows, improve the global environment, and protect human health.
On his view, individual citizens and even politicians are apt not to have a sense of responsibility for the quality of legislation because no one makes a significant difference to the outcomes of decision making. One argument is an epistemological one. So against the background facts of diversity, cognitive bias, fallibility and disagreement each person has fundamental interests in having an equal say in the processes of collective decision making.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of written secretly by Jefferson and James Madison proclaim these principles.
The thought is that proportional representation tends to fragment the citizenry into opposing homogeneous camps that rigidly adhere to their party lines and that are continually vying for control over the government.An external limit on the authority of democracy is a limit that arises from principles that are independent of the values or requirements of democracy.
Furthermore, some limits to democratic authority are rebutting limits, which are principles that weigh in the balance against the principles that support democratic decision making.
An inclusive democracy today can only take the form of a confederal democracy that is based on a network of administrative councils whose members or delegates are elected from popular face-to-face democratic assemblies in the various demoi.
For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy. - Definition, Types & Principles In this lesson, we will study the nature of democracy.
We will define the term, take a look at the types of democracy, and examine its basic principles. Today most countries in the world are democracies.
Democracy is the only form of government that people around the world view as legitimate. Thirty years ago, only a quarter of the states of the world were democracies. The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) is committed to supporting and promoting democracy programs throughout the world.
As the nation's primary democracy advocate, DRL is responsible for overseeing the Human Rights and Democracy Fund (HRDF), which was established in to address human rights. Democratic Values — Liberty, Equality, Justice. Liberty and equality. The "Tennis Court Oath" became the first step towards representative democracy in France.
The Influence of the Enlightenment. The European Enlightenment spawned democratic ideas that are valued today. This Washington State University site takes a good look .Download