Politicians and political parties in turn, have an incentive to favor co-ethnics in their distribution of material benefits. British imperial rule in both countries provided identities, languages and symbols for ethnic and racial groups.
Constitutionally, Nigeria opted for federalism and secularism to manage ethnic and regional misunderstanding Like South Africa, a bill of rights was included in the constitution, which was intended to allay the fears of ethnic minorities in the South.
It was this European view of tribalism that thought of it as such, however closer examination reveals it to be a politically dynamic and deliberately constructed phenomenon. If true, general explanations of ethnic violence would be impossible.
The provinces enjoy relative autonomy, thus helping to de-escalate conflict. Sudan fought two civil wars between the Arab-dominated north and the black African south, the most recent from which resulted in autonomy and later the independence of South Sudan in It is important to note that most of these ethnic conflicts were caused by colonialismwhich compounded inter-ethnic conflict by capitalising on the isolation of ethnic groups.
Peace and Conflict, More recent scholarship draws on all three schools. It is believed that a comparison of patterns of ethnic conflict management may offer a better understanding of the complexities and available mechanisms to ensure ethnic harmony and peace.
If politicians only distribute benefits on an ethnic basis, voters will see themselves primarily belonging to an ethnic group and view politicians the same way.
In The Geography of Ethnic Violence, for example, Monica Duffy Toft shows how ethnic group settlement patterns, socially constructed identities, charismatic leaders, issue indivisibility, and state concern with precedent setting can lead rational actors to escalate a dispute to violence, even when doing so is likely to leave contending groups much worse off.
During the military dictatorship, most grassroots organizations were threatened and forced to go into hiding or become militant. Furthermore, effective conflict management institutions reassure foreign investors, thus boosting the economy.
To achieve a lasting peace, Nigeria and South Africa should challenge the actions of ethnic leaders who have used violent ethnic conflict for personal gain. The sub-state was named after a titular minority who inhabited the area as a way to Sovietize nationalist sentiments during the s.
It also helped to inculcate a commitment to accountability and transparency into South African public life.The causes of ethnic conflict cannot be generalised to fit all incidents, as the conflicts in Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland demonstrate.
David Lake and Donald Rothchild’s argument that a group’s ‘collective fear of the future’ (41) is often the main cause of ethnic conflict remains the most. In the area of ethnic conflict and violence, this fallacy is common. To assess the extent to which Muller falls prey to it, one needs some sense of the "base." How frequently does ethnic conflict occur, and how often does it occur in the context of volatile mismatches between ethnic groups and states?
Mali, Sudan, and Ethnic Conflict in Northern Africa (also available in French here). Africa, for all its beauty and rich history, has always been a complex and often harsh continent. Whether clientelism, tribalism and ethnic conflict were a product not of tradition but of modernity in Africa and a type of development is a difficult and complex question in many respects, but one to which I have a strong argument.
Conflict Resolution In African Countries Politics Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
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